CE Lab offers different kinds of theses and investigation works. Also our cooperation companies offers subjects for theses. Contact us to find a suitable thesis for you!

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Theses done in the CE Lab have been compiled below. Theses are roughly divided into different themes. Please take into account that theses can fit under several different themes.


Life cycle assessment and environmental impacts

Development of circular economy

Waste management and recycling




Engblom (2019). Mold, maggots and mouse droppings : Purification of post-consumer textiles in the sorting phase.

In the thesis, the factors influencing the end of discarded textiles for energy recovery instead of reuse or recycling were investigated, and solutions were sought for cleaning textiles. The Telaketju network commissioned the work. Based on the results, the solution to the problem could be cleaning textiles with steam or traditional machine washing, especially with heat treatment.

Kannisto (2022). Consumers needs for developing end-of-life textile collection.

In the thesis, consumers’ needs were investigated for the development of waste textile collection. The client was Lounais-Suomen Jätehuolto Oy. As a result, the findings of the consumer survey and improvement suggestions are presented.


Lehtinen (2024). Reuse of textiles in Finland : consumer research on the reuse of clothes, footwear, and accessories.

The aim of the thesis was to find out how much and which routes clothes, footwear and accessories circulate among consumers. The results show that basic clothing is donated and sold the most among consumers. Among the reuse routes, donations and sales among family and friends, as well as charity organizations, are used the most.

Niekka (2024). Textile fiber wear and fiber identification : Consequences of textile lifecycle on fiber content.

The aim of the thesis was to determine how identical textiles wear during their lifecycle and how mechanical fiber opening affects textile fiber rotations. Wear was examined through hyperspectral imaging and chemical analysis. The algorithm produced by hyperspectral imaging predicted wash cycles promisingly with an accuracy of ± 3 washes. Chemical analysis, on the other hand, showed that textile use and washes cause wear. Wear is not linear or directly proportional to wash cycles. The effects of mechanical fiber opening are difficult to confirm because the difference in fiber ratios between samples was within one percent, which falls within the error margins of the analysis.

Pitsinki (2021). Textiles circular economy.

The purpose of the thesis was to raise awareness of the textile circular economy. This was carried out through a survey study, which examined companies’ approaches to implementing a circular economy and explored perceptions aroused by the circular economy of clothes and textiles. The client for the project was Turku University of Applied Sciences. Eighteen individuals responded to the survey. The majority of respondents believed that circular economy business models add value to their companies.

Virtanen (2021). The role of cleaning in improving postconsumer textiles recycling.

The thesis aimed to investigate the optimization of textile recycling processes, particularly focusing on the cleaning process. As a result, methods to enhance and optimize the cleaning process are presented, along with potential partners for the client. The client was LSJH.

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Life cycle assessment and environmental impacts

Aalto (2024). The carbon footprint of an industrial plastic product.

The aim of the thesis was to calculate the carbon footprint of a product of an industrial company. From the results of the calculation, it could be concluded that about 85% of the product’s carbon footprint consisted of materials and 10.5% of transportation. Energy and water consumption and waste disposal accounted for less than 5% of the product’s carbon footprint. The best results for
reducing the carbon footprint are obtained if emission reductions are targeted at the stages and processes of the life cycle where the largest emissions are generated. The biggest emission reductions would therefore be obtained by looking at the material alternatives with lower emissions.

Alander (2024). Mapping of carbon-wise heating methods for an engine shop : Case TunturiTec.

The thesis compared the differences between district heating, geothermal, airto-water heat pumps, air heat pumps, and heat recovery systems. The comparison revealed that district heating and geothermal heat were the best options. However, district heating was chosen as the recommended measure due to its lower investment costs and reliable technology. The investigation revealed that it makes sense for the company to consider possible investment costs and to find out what would be the optimal payback period for the system.

Heikkilä (2023). Comparison of Carbon Footprints in Residential Energy Solutions.

The objective of the thesis was to gather existing research data considering the entire life cycle of the residential energy solutions and by using this information compile a Microsoft Excel based carbon footprint calculation tool for the client AFRY Buildings Finland Oy. According to the results most of the carbon footprint is created by the usephase consumption of purchased energy.

Hentula (2021). The use of recycled concrete aggregate in infrastructure construction.

The study investigated the use of crushed concrete in infrastructure construction and its effectiveness as a carbon sink. The client for the project was Kiertomaa Oy. As a result, it was found that the carbon sequestration capacity of concrete increases when it is crushed into smaller pieces. Challenges to its use include its reputation as a material, bureaucracy, and the fact that its environmental impacts have not been comprehensively studied enough.

Jussila (2022). The carbon footprint of a sensor technology based service : Benete Ltd.

The thesis aimed to calculate the carbon footprint of the client, Benete Oy’s, Functional Capacity Assessment service and to determine if the company could provide carbon handprints to client companies through this service. The results include an overview of the carbon footprint calculation, with production being the largest contributor. The study reveals that there are no established standards for calculating carbon handprint, so they could not be defined within the scope of this thesis.

Kaasalainen (2022). Climate impact assessment of the product as a service model.

The thesis aimed to investigate the climate impacts of Pure Waste company’s new product-as-a-service model. The client was Pure Waste. It was found that the results were rather lacking, as not all life cycle functions could be calculated. The biggest emissions after production came from if the customer picked up the clothes from the rental company by car.

Kolkkanen (2022). Replacing glass fiber with more environmentally friendly fibers in composites : Survey of possible value chains.

The study aimed to investigate potential fiber reinforcements to replace glass fiber in composites. Meyer Turku Oy acted as the client. The results present reasons for seeking a substitute for glass fiber, how three selected natural fibers are suitable for replacing glass fiber, the associated challenges, and identify areas requiring further research.

Kononen (2022). Efficiency and carbon wisdom in ports : Increasing efficiency of port calls by reducing waiting time.

The work aimed to investigate the possibilities of making port visits more efficient by reducing waiting times. The results presented the time spent in the port outside of loading and unloading activities, factors affecting the efficiency of these operations, and methods to streamline port visits. The client was the Maritime Charting Ecosystem.

Kuivanen (2024). Compliance with Environmental Requirements in Electrical Equipment Manufactured by SME.

The objective of this thesis was to ascertain the environmental compliance of electrical components used in the production of the client company through a product example corresponding to the manufactured electrical device. Based on the examination of environmental compliance conducted in this thesis, it was found that the RoHS directive provided the most comprehensive information on environmental compliance, whereas the SCIP database had the
weakest coverage.

Laine (2023). A company’s carbon footprint calculation : Turku Science Park Ltd.

In the work, a carbon footprint calculation was made for Turku Science Park Oy for the year 2022. The results of the calculation indicate that travel caused the largest emissions.  In addition, the results provide development proposals to reduce emissions.

Lehtonen (2023). Environmental impacts considered in software development companies.

The thesis examined the environmental impacts to be considered in software development companies and the environmental standards used. The results indicate that companies do not have environmental criteria in place, but they have nevertheless taken the initiative to develop more sustainable software. Environmental considerations are also not yet taken into account in public-sector software procurement. The thesis was conducted for the MidViDi project.

Lundén (2023). Life Cycle Assessment for Compact Secondary Substation.

The work aimed to determine the carbon footprint of the RMU park substation by examining its life cycle from cradle to factory gate. The work was carried out for UTU Oy. The calculated carbon footprint was 5,027 kg CO2e. The majority of emissions resulted from raw materials.

Lundstedt (2023). The carbon footprint of Lounavoima’s energy production.

The work calculated the carbon footprint of the Lounavoima waste-to-energy power plant’s energy production. The total emissions from Lounavoima in 2022 were 34,634 t CO2e, of which 95% originated from energy production and usage. The most significant emission reductions would thus be achieved by reducing energy consumption and preventing waste generation.

Makkonen (2024). Cost comparison of personnel lift rental operations taking environmental impacts into account.

The aim of this thesis was to examine the rental activities of the commissioner at the client’s site. The comparison showed that it would be profitable to replace diesel powered lifts with electric powered equivalents, as the total cost fell by almost half of the original cost.

Salminen (2021). Life cycle assessment for a t-shirt made of recycled material.

The work conducted a life cycle assessment for a recycled textile-made t-shirt and compared the results to a t-shirt made from virgin cotton. The thesis was carried out for the Telaketju 2 project. The results indicate that the carbon footprint of the shirts is nearly the same, but there are significant differences in water usage.

Uusirasi (2022). Creating an environmental product declaration for an aggregate.

The work created an environmental declaration for the aggregate produced at Kukkulamäki in Joutsa. The client of the thesis was Destia Oy.  As a result, it was found that the largest environmental impacts, in addition to crushing the aggregate, are caused by transportation. Additionally, the reuse of the aggregate could have significant positive environmental effects.

Vassallo (2022). The life cycle analysis of recycled polyesterfibre : At Rester Ltd’s facility in Paimio.

The aim was to find out the climate impact of Rester Oy’s recycled fiber production through a life cycle assessment (LCA). The largest greenhouse gas emissions came from washing and drying of the waste textiles and burning the rejects of the facility.

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Development of circular economy

Ahtaanluoma (2021). The reuse of furniture at the city of Helsinki : The Education division.

The study aimed to assess the status of furniture reuse within the education and training sector at Helsinki and to provide development proposals for enhancing reuse effectiveness. The topic of the work came from the city of Helsinki during the internship. As a result, it was concluded that by prioritizing reuse, both costs and climate emissions could be reduced.

Johansson (2023). Extending the life cycle of tableware : Professional kitchens’ thoughts on Ainia tableware restoration service.

The thesis examined how professional kitchens viewed the restoration service of Ainia dishes. Additionally, it investigated what solutions would best serve different stakeholders and how many and what types of dishes should be saved for restoration. The aim was to provide useful information for the client, E. Ahlström, to improve the service. The final results presented challenges identified in the survey and proposed improvements for enhancing operations.

Karavatski (2020). Challenges and opportunities for car dismantler plants in the circular economy : Reuse of end-of-life vehicles and actual dismantling volumes.

In the thesis, it was found out how much of the scrap vehicles are disassembled for reuse in Finnish car scrapping yards, and what challenges and opportunities are associated with this. The customer was the Suomen Autopurkaamoliitto Ry. The final results include an analysis of data related to car dismantling, the role of car dismantling yards in the handling of end-of-life vehicles, and suggestions for improving the circular economy of car dismantling operations.

Karjalainen (2021). The current state of carbon neutral circular economy in the maritime cluster : A compilation of carbon neutral circular economy solutions in the maritime
cluster of years 2019–2021.

The work investigated the circular economy and carbon-neutral activities carried out by marine clusters. The thesis was done as part of the Sea map- ecosystem connected to the Turku University of Applied Sciences. The results show that a strong system based on laws and regulations would be needed to implement circular economy compliance and carbon neutrality in maritime clusters. Companies are not ready to take major climate action, as it threatens their competitiveness in the market.

Markuksela (2022). Best practices of circular economy networks for information sharing.

The thesis aimed to investigate knowledge sharing in circular economy networks. Additionally, the goal was to list existing circular economy networks and compile the best practices utilized by these networks. The result presented five top-performing models. The client was the Circular Economy Finland network.

Nokkala (2023). Review of the Finnish maritime cluster’s current state of carbon wisdom and circular economy.

In this thesis, the current state of the Finnish Maritime cluster as a carbon wise and circular economy operator was studied. The results show that in the Finnish maritime cluster carbon wisdom, circular economic and sustainable development have been taken into account fairly.

Ojala (2024). Extending the life cycle of a home appliance : An insurance company’s role as an enabler of circular economy.

This thesis investigated extending the life cycle of household appliances. The aim of the work was to produce a SWOT analysis and development proposal for an insurance company that can be utilized in the development of compensation policy in accordance with the circular economy. The results showed that the causes of breakages are related to product design and it is reinforced by the prevailing consumer culture. However, repair is almost always feasible, unless the defect is related to the device’s circuit board or motor.

Oksanen (2022). Industrial symbioses as a promoter for circular economy.

The thesis investigated industrial symbioses and their importance as promoters of the circular economy. The results showed how significant an effect these symbioses have, and how they could be promoted. In addition, it evaluated the functionality of the FISS operating model. The thesis was done as part of the Circwaste project.

Pasanen (2023). The role of households in achieving United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.

The thesis investigated how households can contribute to achieving the United Nations’ sustainable development goals through their individual choices. The client was the Finnish Circular Economy Association. The results demonstrated the significant impact households can have and how everyone can influence the attainment of these goals.

Rasimus (2020). Circular economy strategies in plastics companies.

The thesis aimed to increase awareness of what kind of opportunities businesses according to the Roundhouse can offer to plastic companies. The client was Bioplastics Europe. In the results, we go over where improvements can still be made, what kind of challenges plastic companies face in transitioning to a circular economy, and how and why these challenges should be explored.

Sotka (2022). The route towards carbon-neutral and circular economy shipping.

The thesis examined the current state and prospects of the maritime cluster in Finland and internationally. The client was the Maritime Charting Ecosystem. As a result, the transition of shipping to the circular economy and carbon neutrality was presented, along with the sectors related to maritime transport, the number of companies, turnover, and number of employees.

Virta (2017). Educationg for a circular economy : Case Kiertotalous 2.0 project learning environment.

The work aimed to explore how circular economy is taught and learned, and how project-based learning environments support a shift in mindset. The client was the Resource-Efficient Business research group at Turku University of Applied Sciences. The thesis gives suggestions for the development of the Circular Economy 2.0 project learning environment.

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Waste management and recycling

Haapasalo (2019). Waste management plan of kindergarten : Waste management development in a private day-care center.

The work aimed to create a waste management plan for a daycare center and to reduce the amount of mixed waste produced by the daycare center. The result includes improvement suggestions for waste management at the daycare center. The client was the daycare center for which the waste plan was developed.

Hatulainen (2017). Ship recycling and the waste legislation of Finland : The management of material flows of ship recycling.

The thesis investigated the recycling of maritime vessels in Finland. The research was conducted as part of the Ship Recycling in Finland project. As a result of the study, it was found that the theoretical reuse and recycling rate of vessels is high, and the profitability of ship recycling is limited in the current market conditions.

Hansen (2019). Composition of burnable mixed waste from households in LSJH are of operations in 2019.

The aim was to investigate the average composition of the combustible waste collected from properties in the operational area of LSJH, namely Lounais-Suomen Jätehuolto. LSJH acted as the client. The final results present the findings obtained, examine the impact of separate collection obligations, and compare the results of this study with those of previous measurements.

Heino (2019). SERKELE! : Potentials and challenges collecting E-waste from residential properties in Finland.

The thesis investigated the challenges and possibilities of property-specific SER waste collection. As a result, it was found that due to the length of the distances and the small amount of waste, the profitability of the collection service in Finland decreased both ecologically and financially.

Honkonen (2019). Fly ash and APC waste management : An overview of the current situation and the future opportunities of the EPSE method

The thesis aimed to review the current treatment methods for fly ash and APC waste, sustainable solutions, and potential applications.  In addition, a new method of embossing is being studied, which has been patented by Global EcoProcess Services Oy (EPSE), who commissioned the work. It was concluded in the study that the use of fly ash and APC waste in soil construction could be possible if their technical and chemical properties were sufficiently known over a long time.

Lehmusoksa (2022). Report on the reuse of soils in Kanta-Häme and Pirkanmaa.

The work investigated the situation of soil reuse in the municipalities located in Kanta-Hämee and Pirkanmaa and gave development ideas for reuse. The client was the city of Hämeenlinna. Development ideas included a more efficient permit process and clearer guidelines for practices.

Lehtimäki (2021). Quality mapping of AB recycled wood in Ekopartnerit Turku Oy.

The work investigated the quality of AB recycled wood received by Ekopartnerit Turku Oy. The goal was to examine the types of impurities found in the loads and determine from which customers the contaminated wood loads originated. As a result, it was found that 62% of the contaminated loads came from the same company. Complaints about contaminated loads were most often made due to excessive plastic content.

Mahmoodi (2019). Planning and mapping out the plastic road map for Meyer Turku corporation.

The thesis aimed to find out how much plastic waste is generated at Meyer Turku Oy and what type of plastic waste it is, as well as to minimize environmental impacts by, among other things, recycling and better sorting of plastic waste. The result was the Meyer Turku Plastic Roadmap, which includes five strategic goals to tackle the plastic challenge.

Pääkkönen (2019). Energy efficient and cost effective collecting and recycling of EPS : research of using limonene and its efficiency to EPS material.

The work investigated the functionality of the EPS waste collection, recycling, and transport practices used in Japan in Finland. The client was Lounais-Suomen jätehuolto Oy (LSJH). In the thesis, it was concluded that the operating model could also work in Finland, also in the collection and recycling of dirty EPS waste. However, the high price of limonene needed in the process makes the operating model cost-effective.

Raitis (2022). Recycling of artificial turf in Finland.

The work aimed to study the recycling of artificial turfs in Finland. The client was the City of Lieto. The survey revealed that there are no ready methods for recycling artificial turfs in Finland but recycling methods from other countries could also be applicable in Finland.

Rantanen (2022). Marine sanitary water in the Baltic Sea : Regulation, processing, and environmental impact management.

The work investigated potential incentives for more sustainable treatment of sanitary waters and methods for managing their environmental impacts. The client was Finnlines. The thesis concluded that nutrient emissions from sanitary waters could be easily controlled by changing the practices on ships.

Rapo (2023). Mixed waste composition study of municipal service properties.

In this thesis, the composition of mixed waste, the amount of recyclable material in mixed waste, and the separate collection possibilities of municipal service properties in five southwestern municipalities in Finland were investigated. It was found out that there is a lot of recyclable
material among the mixed waste. Based on this, the sorting of waste at the service properties does not work in accordance with the obligations.

Ruuskanen (2022). The effectiveness of Southwest Finlands Waste Management Ltds biowaste sorting campaing.

The work investigated the effects of the organic waste sorting campaign implemented by Lounais-Suomen Jätehuolto Oy on the amount of organic waste and residents’ motivation to sort organic waste separately. The client was Lounais-Suomen Jätehuolto Oy. Based on the results, the amount of sorted organic waste had significantly increased after the campaign.

Tanila (2022). Novida’s waste management plan : Uusikaupunki and Loimaa.

The thesis aimed to create a new waste management plan for the Uusikaupunki and LLoiama units of the client Novida. As a result, Novida is able to use this work to create a more efficient and environmentally friendly waste management system.

Vettenranta (2023). Exploration of waste from the primary packaging line

The aim of the thesis was to investigate the waste generated from a primary packaging machine and its potential for reprocessing into new products. The results provide a comprehensive review of why waste or reprocessed products occur, which factors influence it and how it could be prevented. The client was a company in the pharmaceutical industry.

Virta (2023). Composition study of material prepared for reuse.

The thesis aimed to find out the composition of the waste received at the sorting station and to study the life cycle of the waste. The final results presented the results of the composition studies, measures to extend the life cycle of the waste, and development proposals, with an emphasis on the circular economy, for the development of the waste center’s operations. The clients are Lounais-Suomen Jätehuolto oy and Turku Ekotori.

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Ilmasti (2022). Environmental Criteria for ICT Public Procurements.

The thesis aimed to investigate the consideration of environmental criteria in public procurement, specifically in ICT procurements. The results present the identified deficiencies in environmental criteria in procurements, challenges observed in considering environmental impacts, and suggestions for improvement on how environmental criteria can be better integrated in the future and what this will require.

Jokinen (2024). Public procurement as an enabler for the promotion of the circular economy of textiles : Reviewing textile procurement in the welfare sector.

This thesis examined how it is possible to promote the circular economy of textiles through public procurement. The main focus was on the textile ecosystem built around the Finnish welfare sector. Based on the results, public procurers should invest in high-quality textile products that correspond to their uses, and that are eventually recycled correctly when they can no longer be kept in use through repair and reuse.

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